# When and what kexts to use

# Broadcom

# AirportBrcmFixup (opens new window)

This is needed to fix wifi on many Broadcom cards, while not all of them need them it's generally required when using non-apple manufactured wireless cards. This also has the added functionality of injecting old Broadcom kexts into newer versions of macOS.

  • Note: Apple AirPort and Fenvi cards do not need this kext

# BrcmPatchRAM (opens new window)

Required for all non-Apple manufactured wireless cards due to how firmware is handled. This is actually a bundle of multiple kexts:

  • BrcmBluetoothInjector
    • Do not use with macOS 12, use BlueToolFixup instead
    • If you dual boot both macOS 11 or under and macOS 12, MinKernel and MaxKernel under Kernel -> Add in your config can be used to load one kext or the other in a specific OS
  • BrcmFirmwareData
  • BrcmPatchRAM fix:
    • BrcmPatchRAM3 for macOS 10.14+ (must be paired with BrcmBluetoothInjector unless on macOS 12)
    • BrcmPatchRAM2 for macOS 10.11-10.14
    • BrcmPatchRAM for macOS 10.10 and older
  • BlueToolFixup:
    • Used in place of BrcmBluetoothInjector on macOS 12
    • See above dual booting note


  • Apple AirPort and Fenvi cards do not need these kexts
  • OpenCore order: BrcmBluetoothInjector or BlueToolFixup -> BrcmFirmwareData -> BrcmPatchRAM

# Intel

# itlwm (opens new window)

  • itlwm (opens new window)
    • itlwm.kext uses Apple's IOEthernet, is more stable than AirportItlwm.kext, and is completely based on open-source resources
    • AirportItlwm.kext uses Apple's IO80211, which is less stable than itlwm.kext, but supports certain Continuity features
    • Unfortunately, neither kext supports AirDrop; see here for features and limitations: OpenIntelWireless (opens new window)

# IntelBluetoothFirmware (opens new window)

Adds Bluetooth support to macOS when paired with an Intel wireless card

# Atheros

# High Sierra's IO80211Family (opens new window)

This kext is required for all Atheros chipsets that had support dropped in Mojave, these include:

  • AR242x
  • AR542x
  • AR5416
  • AR5418
  • AR9280 - AR5BHB92
  • AR9285 - AR5B95
  • AR9287 - AR5B97
  • AR9380 - AR5BXB112

# ATH9KFixup (opens new window)

To be paired with AirPortAtheros40 to fix support for many unsupported Atheros cards, similar idea to AirportBrcmFixup:

  • AR946X (AR9462 & AR9463)
  • AR9485
  • AR9565

# AthBluetoothFirmware (opens new window)

Required to ensure Bluetooth firmware is loaded correctly in macOS